This study examines and compares public library services for immigrants in the U.S. in the early 1900s and nowadays. U.S. public libraries in the early 1900s supported the Americanizing movement by opening English language classes and providing information that is essential for U.S. citizenship. Public librarians also recognized the importance of foreign language materials; by providing foreign language materials and developing diverse services to reach immigrants, public libraries eventually hastened assimilation processes. Despite a gap of one hundred years, the situation today is not very different. Public libraries still try hard to serve their ethnic patrons with extensive foreign- language collections and culturally diverse library programs, while still emphasizing English language education.
With explosive growth in the area of the Internet and IT services, various types of digital contents are generated and circulated, for instance, as converted into digital-typed, secure electronic records or reports, which have high commercial value, e-tickets and so on. However, because those digital contents have commercial value, high-level security should be required for delivery between a consumer and a provider with non face-to-face method in online environment. As a digital contents, an e-ticket is a sort of electronic certificate to assure ticket-holder’s proprietary rights of a real ticket. This paper focuses on e-ticket as a typical digital contents which has real commercial value. For secure delivery and use of digital contents in on/off environment, this paper proposes that 1) how to generate e-tickets in a remote e-ticket server, 2) how to authenticate a user and a smart card holding e-tickets for delivery in online environment, 3) how to save an e-ticket transferred through network into a smart card, 4) how to issue and authenticate e-tickets in offline, and 5) how to collect and discard outdated or used e-tickets.
Recently in Korea, the need has increased for the systematization of the qualifications of subject specialist librarians who have both knowledge and work experience on specific subject. The purpose of this study is to analyze the domestic situation of subject special library services as well as the education backgrounds or work experience of current subject librarians in Korea. At the end, the study attempts to suggest an appropriate framework for the qualification system establishment and operation in Korea based on the supply and demand analysis of domestic subject specialist librarians.
This exploratory study describes the social bookmarking perceptions and behaviors of students in university courses. Although an emerging discussion regarding the value of social bookmarking tools exists, how users adopt tools in practice is not well known. Students were asked to utilize the bookmarking tool del.icio.us to store information relating to course projects. They were also asked to comment how they employed del.icio.us for course projects. The study analyzed student perceptions and behaviors when using social bookmarking tools for university coursework. The study noted that the use of tags, notes, and networking within these social bookmarking tools remained less active and social bookmarking services in Web 2.0 as shared collaboration, shared communities, and vertical search were less present. Utilizing social bookmarking tools to facilitate personal information management includes the activities of information use, information re-use, and mobility.
The Computer Interchange of Museum Information (CIMI), operating from 1990-2003, was charged with creating and introducing the international museum community to the concept of adopting metadata industry standards. The CIMI consortium exceeded its original mission by; creating a standards framework, profile, testbeds, important metadata publications, free downloadable metadata software and protocols, and providing instrumental guidance and support in development of new projects. However, CIMI’s emphasis on the importance and utility of a standards-based approach and the necessity for implementing the CIMI Standards Framework is probably its most important achievement. During CIMI’s tenure, museums reaped the benefits by learning how to apply the model and standards to meet their individual needs while not having to invent new ones or bear the cost of software development. Although CIMI operations ceased in 2003, its impacts on museum related metadata application and research were unprecedented in that it provided the standards prototype and foundations on which to build. This paper discusses what CIMI bequeathed to the next generation of museum metadata field developers and describes the anticipated realm of future projects and advancement.
In this study, research topic areas in Korean and American medical schools were analyzed to detect each nation’s major research areas. CLINICAL NEUROLOGY was identified as the Korean researchers’ major subject area by the total number of journals and ‘RADIOLOGY, NUCLEAR MEDICINE & MEDICAL IMAGING’ was the most major area by the total number of articles. On the other hand, American researchers’ top major subject area was the one same area according to all analysis, BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. In addition, Korean researchers showed publishing tendency related to journal preference in several subject areas.
The synonym issue is an inherent barrier in human-computer communication, and it is more challenging in a Web 2.0 application, especially in social tagging applications. In an effort to resolve the issue, the goal of this study is to test the feasibility of a Web 2.0 application as a potential source for synonyms. This study investigates a way of identifying similar tags from a popular collaborative tagging application, Delicious. Specifically, we propose an algorithm (FolkSim) for measuring the similarity of social tags from Delicious. We compared FolkSim to a cosine-based similarity method and observed that the top-ranked tags on the similar list generated by FolkSim tend to be among the best possible similar tags in given choices. Also, the lists appear to be relatively better than the ones created by CosSim. We also observed that tag folksonomy and similar list resemble each other to a certain degree so that it possibly serves as an alternative outcome, especially in case the FolkSim-based list is unavailable or infeasible.
The purpose of this study was to examine the demand of parents and teachers for a children's library and analyze the need in consideration of their age and children's library-using frequency. The subjects in this study were 1,500 parents and teachers in the region of Gwangju, on whom a survey was implemented to find out the necessity of a children's library, what should be considered in terms of design and program development and what forms of materials should be provided. As a result of checking their needs for the functions of a library, the parents and teachers investigated attached importance to culture, welfare and hands-on culture/art programs as what a library should focus on. Second, as for design, they gave top priority to comfortableness(sanitary facilities, ventilation, humidity and temperature) and safety(sofas, cushions and carpets for children). Third, as to program preference, both of the parents and teachers considered activity, performance and educational programs necessary among multiple kinds of ongoing programs. Specifically, performance programs ranked first among the parents and third among the teachers. Activity programs ranked first among the teachers and third among the parents. Fourth, concerning the importance of materials possessed by a library, they placed the most emphasis on the kind of materials that could foster creativity and instill the right personality.
Recently, semantic search techniques which are based on information space as consisting of non- ambiguous, non-redundant, formal pieces of ontological knowledge have been developed so that users do exploit large knowledge bases. The purpose of the study is to design more user-friendly and smarter retrieval interface based on ontological analysis, which can provide more precise information by reducing semantic ambiguity or more rich linked information based on well-defined relationships. Therefore, this study, first of all, focuses on ontological analysis on researcher information as selecting descriptive elements, defining classes and properties of descriptive elements, and identifying relationships between the properties and their restriction between relationships. Next, the study designs the prototypical retrieval interface based on ontology-based representation, which supports to semantic searching and browsing regarding researchers as a full-fledged domain. On the proposed retrieval interface, users can search various facts for researcher information such as research outputs or the personal information, or carrier history and browse the social connection of the researchers such as researcher group that is lecturing or researching on the same subject or involving in the same intellectual communication.
This study explores knowledge structures of science and technology disciplines using a cocitation analysis of journal subject categories with the publication data of a science & technology oriented university in Korea. References cited in the articles published by the faculty of the university were analyzed to produce MDS maps and network centralities. For the whole university research domain, six clusters were created including clusters of Biology related subjects, Medicine related subjects, Chemistry plus Engineering subjects, and multidisciplinary sciences plus other subjects of multidisciplinary nature. It was found that subjects of multidisciplinary nature and Biology related subjects function as central nodes in knowledge communication network in science and technology. Same analysis procedure was applied to two natural science disciplines and another two engineering disciplines to present knowledge structures of the departmental research domains.
Electronic publishing has influenced, and in some ways changed, information seeking, reading patterns and citation behaviours. This study collected the Cited Half-Lives, the indicator implies the life-span of scholarly journals, from JCR Social Science edition the before and after of the prevalence of electronic journals, and observed if there are some changes in these two periods. The analysis results of eight disciplines show that the average Cited Half-Lives increased in 2007 than in 1994 for seven disciplines except the demography. Especially in the four disciplines of economics, education, finance and sociology, the average Cited Half-Lives increased significantly. This results show that the concentration, researchers cite more recent articles and concentrate their citations on fewer ones, is lightening and the dispersion of citations is actually increasing. With the online availability of articles and journals the old online materials can be often accessed, used and cited more frequently, the more growth potential of Cited Half-Lives are made in a digital environment. Further research needs to investigate if the phenomenon will become more obvious in various disciplines after a few years.