The purpose of this study is to observe and analyze information searching behaviors of various user groups in different access modes for designing user-centered query interface of content-based Music Information Retrieval System(MIRS). Two expert groups and two non-expert groups were recruited for this research. The data gathering techniques employed in this study were in-depth interviewing, participant observation, searching task experiments, think-aloud protocols, and post-search surveys. Expert users, especially majoring in music theory, preferred to input exact notes one by one using such devices as a keyboard and a musical score. On the other hand, non-expert users preferred to input melodic contours by humming.
Based upon the assumption that both theory building and theory use are intertwined to construct a cohesive body of knowledge in the filed, this study attempts to identify the state of theoretical framework by examining the number and the quality of theoretical articles by subfield. Theoretical article is characterized as an incident in which in which the author contributes to the development or the use of theory in his/her own paper. Theoretical incidents were identified by a content analysis of 1,661 articles in four LIS journals from 1984 to 2003. The findings suggest that the four subfields, such as information seeking/use, information retrieval, library management, and scholar communication had great contributions to both theory building and theory use. Also, two research areas such as bibliometrics and professionals are very likely to be theoretical. Further, the analysis of the name of theories used by subfields could give an insight into the understanding of how the theoretical frameworks of each subfield are related.
In this study we proposed a new informational structure and category labels to fully support the functions of school websites as an access tool to its contents. The proposed model was divided into three main aspects. First, main menu structure was the primary guideline to access information embedded in a website. Therefore, The proposed main menu structure consisted of 9 categories that are commonly provided by 17 existing school websites. Second, first-level categories consisted of total 35 categories under 9 main menu categories. Each category was placed under certain categories in main menu based on the relationships with the meaning of the upper level categories. Third, the proposed model adopted general and comprehensive terms as category labels. The terms used as category labels were based on the analysis of existing category labels, and the most frequently used terms were selected from the current school websites.
To come up with the recommendations to improve the patent & trademark retrieval efficiency, 100,016 patent & trademark search requests by 17,559 unique users over a period of 193 days were analyzed. By analyzing 2,202 multi-query sessions, where one user issuing two or more queries consecutively, we discovered a number of retrieval efficiency improvements clues. The session analysis result also led to suggestions for new system features to help users reformulating queries. The patent & trademark retrieval users were found to be similar to the typical web users in certain aspects especially in issuing short queries. However, we also found that the patent & trademark retrieval users used Boolean operators more than the typical web search users. By analyzing the multi-query sessions, we found that the users had five intentions in reformulating queries such as paraphrasing, specialization, generalization, alternation, and interruption, which were also used by the web search engine users.
Changes in document delivery service environment such as spread of web-based research information communication and direct communication between users and information providers have considerable effects on document delivery service institutes. Swift advances in information technology have allowed users to receive information on their desktops via web. Web-based document delivery makes the massive scale of reproduction and distribution possible so it need to protect the copyright holders' rights. This study identifies the current trends and issues of document delivery service environment and reviews electronic document delivery services of foreign countries. Also this study introduces the domestic electronic document delivery service, e-DDS, and evaluates the copyright issues for the service.
The purpose of this study is to investigate what level of difference in precision would be significantly perceived by a human user of an information retrieval system. Not many researches have been conducted with regards to this issue in information retrieval field. Despite the non-significant results, there were several interesting findings in recognizing different levels of precision rates. The correctness of relevance task had little to do with the taken time for the task. In addition, the strong relationship between the subjects' topic familiarity and rate of correct judgments is one of the most interesting results in this study. It turned out that the subjects have more difficulty in a situation they have to judge between the two lists having more non-relevant documents than in a situation they do between the lists having more relevant documents. Finally, the serious influence from the first top N documents in a list for relevance judgment task has been confirmed.
This paper addresses issues related to the design of an interface supporting fine grained interaction with documents, focusing on a particular type of
This paper is studied in order to develop the models that are appropriate for the procurement of electronic books at the school libraries. To develop the model, the following factors were reviewed: the characteristics of an electronic book, the factor analysis that affect the electronic book price, use case, environment, the role of government for the price decision model and procurement method. The models were proposed based on the above analysis and review. In addition, the proposed models reflect various opinions that the school libraries can apply.
The explosive growth of Web-based educational resources requires a new approach for accessing relevant information effectively. Social searching in the context of social navigation is one of several answers to this problem, in the domain of information retrieval. It provides users with not merely a traditional ranked list, but also with visual hints which can guide users to information provided by their colleagues. A personalized and context-dependent social searching system has been implemented on a platform called KnowledgeSea II, an open-corpus Web-based educational support system with multiple access methods. Validity tests were run on a variety of aspects and results have shown that this is an effective way to help users access relevant, essential information.
This paper describes a metadata extraction technique based on natural language processing (NLP) which extracts personalized information from email communications between financial analysts and their clients. Personalized means connecting users with content in a personally meaningful way to create, grow, and retain online relationships. Personalization often results in the creation of user profiles that store individuals preferences regarding goods or services offered by various e-commerce merchants. We developed an automatic metadata extraction system designed to process textual data such as emails, discussion group postings, or chat group transcriptions. The focus of this paper is the recognition of emotional contents such as mood and urgency, which are embedded in the business communications, as metadata.
This study examines the history and issues of the LIS field in Korea in order to identify problems of the current librarian education & research areas and provide a new direction for development in this field. As the result of the research, the issues in the department of LIS are found as follows: 1) the LIS departments are restructuring their curriculums 2) the departments are strengthening IT education 3) the foundation for producing professional librarians with area expertise is established by double major programs 4) most popular research areas are library management, organization of information, information sciences etc. 5) the research areas have been diversified as well including information search, record management and publishing.
This study aims to examine online students informal information seeking behavior during their learning process and online learning environments to support their informal information needs. The participants of the study were 29 online students in the Professional Development Studies of Rutgers University. Data was collected by the questionnaire and was analyzed with content analysis and descriptive statistics. This study focuses on when and why online students need human interaction to solve their learning problems and how they communicate with others to meet their informal information needs. Moreover, how online students think about their personal communication opportunities and the functions of their online learning system to support their learning problems is also examined. Finally, online students suggest the ways to effectively support personal communication needed during learning process in online learning systems. Based on the findings of this study, a few considerations are suggested in conclusions.
This study aims to suggest an effective way to enhance question-answer(QA) document retrieval performance by reconstructing queries based on the structural features in the QA documents. QA documents are a structured document which consists of three components: question from a questioner, short description on the question, answers chosen by the questioner. The study proposes the methods to reconstruct a new query using by two major structural parts, question and answer, and examines which component of a QA document could contribute to improve query performance. The major finding in this study is that to use answer document set is the most effective for reconstructing a new query. That is, queries reconstructed based on terms appeared on the answer document set provide the most relevant search results with reducing redundancy of retrieved documents.
Since the beginning of discussions on serial collection management, as budgets have waxed and waned over the ensuing decades, a number of key variables affecting selection/deselection have emerged but without the framework of a coherent and accepted theoretical model. This study is an effort to identify variables which affect the serial collection decision with special attention to selection/deselection in the context of an academic health science library. Based on results from correlation analyses and logistic regression analyses, the serial collection decision can be explained and predicted using various combinations of a reduced set of objective variables. Applications of the results to libraries are discussed, and further research is proposed.
In text categorization a certain level of correctness of labels assigned to training documents is assumed without solid knowledge on that of real-world collections. Our research attempts to explore the quality of pre-assigned subject categories in a real-world collection, and to identify the relationship between the quality of category assignment in training set and text categorization performance. Particularly, we are interested in to what extent the performance can be improved by enhancing the quality (i.e., correctness) of category assignment in training documents. A collection of 1,150 abstracts in computer science is re-classified by an expert group, and divided into 907 training documents and 227 test documents (15 duplicates are removed). The performances of before and after re-classification groups, called Initial set and Recat-1/Recat-2 sets respectively, are compared using a kNN classifier. The average correctness of subject categories in the Initial set is 16%, and the categorization performance with the Initial set shows 17% in F1 value. On the other hand, the Recat-1 set scores F1 value of 61%, which is 3.6 times higher than that of the Initial set.
While numerous studies have suggested the significance of uncertainty during the process of information-seeking, less research has investigated user uncertainty in the actual search process using a real system. This study investigated user perceptions of uncertainty in the process of the selection of Web search terms in the real information-seeking process. The subjects at the doctoral or post-doctoral level were limited to the discipline of science in order to understand user perceptions in this field. The findings revealed various dimensions, types, and incidents of uncertainty. The typology of uncertainty facilitated an understanding of the subjects' information-seeking context by identifying various aspects of the context that constituted the subjects’ uncertainty. The identification of two principal origins of uncertainty based on the different types of uncertainty generated implications to improve information systems and services.